JDK-8181287 : JEP 305: Pattern Matching for instanceof (Preview)
  • Type: JEP
  • Component: specification
  • Sub-Component: language
  • Priority: P3
  • Status: Closed
  • Resolution: Delivered
  • Fix Versions: 14
  • Submitted: 2017-05-30
  • Updated: 2021-08-28
  • Resolved: 2020-01-29
Related Reports
Relates :  
Relates :  
Sub Tasks
JDK-8231826 :  
JDK-8235617 :  

Enhance the Java programming language with _pattern matching_ for the
operator. [Pattern matching](http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~briangoetz/amber/pattern-match.html)
allows common logic in a program, namely the conditional extraction of components
from objects, to be expressed more concisely and safely. This is a [preview language feature](http://openjdk.java.net/jeps/12) in JDK 14.


Nearly every program includes some sort of logic that combines testing
if an expression has a certain type or structure, and then
conditionally extracting components of its state for further
processing.  For example, all Java programmers are familiar with the
instanceof-and-cast idiom:

    if (obj instanceof String) {
        String s = (String) obj;
        // use s

There are three things going on here: a test (is `obj` a `String`?), a
conversion (casting `obj` to `String`), and the declaration of a new
local variable (`s`) so we can use the string value.  This pattern is
straightforward and understood by all Java programmers, but is
suboptimal for several reasons.  It is tedious; doing both the type
test and cast should be unnecessary (what else would you do after an
`instanceof` test?). This boilerplate -- in particular, the three
occurrences of the type `String` --- obfuscates the more significant
logic that follows.  But most importantly, the repetition provides
opportunities for errors to creep unnoticed into programs.

Rather than reach for ad-hoc solutions, we believe it is time for Java
to embrace _pattern matching_.  Pattern matching allows the desired 
'shape' of an object to be expressed concisely (the _pattern_), and 
for various statements and expressions to test that 'shape' against 
their input (the _matching_). Many languages, from Haskell to C#, 
have embraced pattern matching for its brevity and safety.


A _pattern_ is a combination of (1) a _predicate_ that can be applied to a
target, and (2) a set of _binding variables_ that are 
extracted from the target only if the predicate successfully applies
to it.

A _type test pattern_ consists of a predicate that specifies a type,
along with a single binding variable.

The `instanceof` operator
([JLS 15.20.2](https://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs/jls/se11/html/jls-15.html#jls-15.20.2))
is extended to take a type test pattern instead of just a type. In the
code below, the phrase `String s` is the type test pattern:

    if (obj instanceof String s) {
        // can use s here
    } else {
        // can't use s here

The `instanceof` operator "matches" the target `obj` to the type test
pattern as follows: if `obj` is an instance of `String`, then it is cast
to `String` and assigned to the binding variable `s`. The binding variable is in
scope in the true block of the `if` statement, and not in the false block of the `if` statement.

The scope of a binding variable, unlike the scope of a local variable, is determined by the semantics of the containing expressions and statements. For example, in this code:

    if (!(obj instanceof String s)) {
        .. s.contains(..) ..
    } else {
        .. s.contains(..) ..

the `s` in the true block refers to a field in the enclosing class, and the `s` in the false block refers to the binding variable introduced by the `instanceof` operator.

When the conditional of the `if` statement grows more complicated than a single `instanceof`, the scope of the binding variable grows accordingly. For example, in this code:

    if (obj instanceof String s && s.length() > 5) {.. s.contains(..) ..}

the binding variable `s` is in scope on the right hand side of the `&&` operator, as well as in the true block. (The right hand side is only evaluated if `instanceof` succeeded and assigned to `s`.) On the other hand, in this code:

    if (obj instanceof String s || s.length() > 5) {.. s.contains(..) ..}

the binding variable `s` is not in scope on the right hand side of the || operator, nor is it in scope in the true block. (`s` at these points refers to a field in the enclosing class.)

There are no changes to how `instanceof` works when the target is null. 
That is, the pattern will only match, and `s` will only be assigned, if `obj` is not null.

The use of pattern matching in `instanceof` should dramatically reduce 
the overall number of explicit casts in Java programs. Moreover, type test 
patterns are particularly useful when writing equality methods. 
Consider the following equality method taken from Item 10 of the 
[Effective Java book](https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/effective-java-3rd/9780134686097/):

    @Override public boolean equals(Object o) { 
        return (o instanceof CaseInsensitiveString) && 
            ((CaseInsensitiveString) o).s.equalsIgnoreCase(s); 

Using a type test pattern means it can be rewritten to the clearer:

    @Override public boolean equals(Object o) { 
        return (o instanceof CaseInsensitiveString cis) && 

The `instanceof` [grammar](https://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs/jls/se11/html/jls-15.html#jls-15.20) is extended accordingly:

     _RelationalExpression_ `instanceof` _ReferenceType_  
     _RelationalExpression_ `instanceof` _Pattern_

     _ReferenceType_  _Identifier_

Future Work

Future JEPs will enhance the Java programming language with pattern
matching for other language constructs, such as `switch` expressions
and statements.


The benefits of type-test patterns could be obtained by
_flow typing_ in `if` statements, or by a _type switch_ construct.
Pattern matching generalizes both of these constructs.


The implementation may make use of [JEP 309 (Dynamic Class-File Constants)](https://openjdk.java.net/jeps/309).