JDK-8043304 : JEP 197: Segmented Code Cache
  • Type: JEP
  • Component: hotspot
  • Sub-Component: compiler
  • Priority: P3
  • Status: Closed
  • Resolution: Delivered
  • Fix Versions: 9
  • Submitted: 2014-05-16
  • Updated: 2017-04-28
  • Resolved: 2017-04-28
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Sub Tasks
JDK-8050124 :  

Divide the code cache into distinct segments, each of which contains
compiled code of a particular type, in order to improve performance and
enable future extensions.


  - Separate non-method, profiled, and non-profiled code
  - Shorter sweep times due to specialized iterators that skip non-method code
  - Improve execution time for some compilation-intensive benchmarks
  - Better control of JVM memory footprint
  - Decrease fragmentation of highly-optimized code
  - Improve code locality because code of the same type is likely to be
    accessed close in time
    - Better iTLB and iCache behavior
  - Establish a base for future extensions
    - Improved management of heterogeneous code; for example, Sumatra
      (GPU code) and AOT compiled code
    - Possibility of fine-grained locking per code heap
    - Future separation of code and metadata (see
      [JDK-7072317](https://bugs.openjdk.java.net/browse/JDK-7072317 "Move metadata from CodeCache"))


The segmented code cache only provides a base for future extensions such
as fine-grained locking; it does not yet implement any of these

Success Metrics

  - Separation of different code types
  - Shorter sweep time
  - Lower execution time
  - Decreased fragmentation of highly optimized code
  - Reduced number of iTLB and iCache misses


The organization and maintenance of compiled code has a significant
impact on performance. Instances of performance regressions of several factors have been reported if the code cache
takes the wrong actions. With the introduction of tiered compilation the
role of the code cache has become even more important, since the amount of
compiled code increases by a factor of 2X--4X compared to using
non-tiered compilation. Tiered compilation also introduces a new compiled
code type: instrumented compiled code (profiled code). Profiled code has
different properties than non-profiled code; one important difference is
that profiled code has a predefined, limited lifetime while non-profiled
code potentially remains in the code cache forever.

The current code cache is optimized to handle homogeneous code, i.e.,
only one type of compiled code. The code cache is organized as a single
heap data structure on top of a contiguous chunk of memory. Therefore,
profiled code which has a predefined limited lifetime is mixed with
non-profiled code, which potentially remains in the code cache
forever. This leads to different performance and design problems. For
example, the method sweeper has to scan the entire code cache while
sweeping, even if some entries are never flushed or contain non-method


Instead of having a single code heap, the code cache is segmented into
distinct code heaps, each of which contains compiled code of a particular
type. Such a design enables us to separate code with different
properties. There are three different top-level types of compiled code:

  - JVM internal (non-method) code
  - Profiled-code
  - Non-profiled code

The corresponding code heaps are:

  - A non-method code heap containing non-method code, such as compiler
    buffers and bytecode interpreter. This code type will stay in the
    code cache forever.

  - A profiled code heap containing lightly optimized, profiled methods
    with a short lifetime.

  - A non-profiled code heap containing fully optimized, non-profiled
    methods with a potentially long lifetime.

The non-method code heap has a fixed size of 3 MB to account for the VM
internals plus additional space for the compiler buffers. This additional
space is adjusted according to the number of C1/C2 compiler threads. The
remaining code cache space is distributed evenly among the profiled and
the non-profiled code heaps.

The following command-line switches are introduced to control the sizes
of the code heaps:

  - `-XX:NonProfiledCodeHeapSize`: Sets the size in bytes of the code
     heap containing non-profiled methods.

  - `-XX:ProfiledCodeHeapSize`: Sets the size in bytes of the code heap
     containing profiled methods.

  - `-XX:NonMethodCodeHeapSize`: Sets the size in bytes of the code heap
     containing non-method code.

The interface and implementation of the code cache is adapted to support
multiple code heaps. Because the code cache is a central component of the
JVM, many other components are affected by these changes, including the

  - Code cache sweeper: Now only iterates over the method-code heaps
  - Tiered compilation policy: Sets compilation thresholds according to
    free space in code heaps
  - Java Flight Recorder (JFR): Events related to the code cache
  - Indirect references from:
    - Serviceability Agent: Java interface to code-cache internals
    - DTrace ustack helper script (`jhelper.d`): Resolving of names of
      compiled Java methods
    - Pstack support library (`libjvm_db.c`): Stack tracing of compiled
      Java methods


An alternative implementation would define logical memory regions into
which different code types are preferably allocated. If there is free
space, we allocate into the preferred memory region and if there is no
free space left, we allocate somewhere else.


Intensive correctness testing using JPRT, Nashorn + Octane, SPECjbb2013,
SPECjbb2005, SPECjvm2008.

We need to make sure that there is no performance degredation, especially
for embedded usage with small code-cache sizes.

Testing of affected components including Serviceability Agent, DTrace,
Pstack, Java Flight Recorder.

Risks and Assumptions

Having a fixed size per code heap leads to a potential waste of memory in
case one code heap is full and there is still space in another code
heap. Especially for very small code cache sizes it may happen that the
compilers are shut off even if there is still space available. To solve
this problem an option will be added to turn off the segmentation for
small code-cache sizes.

The size of the non-method code depends on the Java application, the
underlying platform, and the JVM settings. It is therefore hard to
determine the required space in the non-method code heap at JVM startup.

Future versions of this patch may implement dynamic resizing (supported
by the sweeper) or different allocation strategies to lower the risk of
wasting memory.

Changed state to Delivered.

Still waiting for Doc-Task. Postponed due date.

Still waiting for Doc-Task. Postponed due date.

Still waiting for Doc-Task. Postponed due date.

Still waiting for Doc-Task. Postponed due date.

Still waiting for Doc-Task. Postponed due date.

I am going to sign off on this JEP assuming that you'll perform some code cache size comparisons with small cache sizes to ensure that this feature doesn't negatively impact embedded. Chris plummer sent instructions on how to perform tests with constrained code cache sizes.

Compiled code can be loaded into a distinct segment of the code cache.

I think we can remove all the Title, Author, ... entries in the text because these are reflected in the JEP template anyway.

A360 is the Oracle system that holds PRDs. You need an account to access it (it isn't under SSO).